Characters

BUDDHA Shakyamuni (480-400 BCE)
Heirs: Kasyapa
Known variously as Siddhartha Gautama, Gautama Buddha, Shakyamuni (the sage of the Shakya Clan), The Tathagata (the thus gone one), The World-Honored One, he is the founder of Buddhism. Born into royalty in Lumbini, he grew up in adjacent Kapilavastu, the capital city of the Shakya kingdom. (Historians are divided on whether the ancient city of Kapilavastu was on the spot now occupied by Tilaurakot, Nepal or by Priprahwa, India 16 km away.) Siddhartha's father was Sudhodhana, traditionally said to be king, making Siddhartha his prince, though some recent scholarship suggests the Shakya were organized as a semi-republican oligarchy rather than a monarchy. His mother, Queen Maya, died giving birth, or a few days after, and Siddhartha was raised by his mother's younger sister, Pajapati. At age 16, he married a cousin, Yasodhara, and they had a son, Rahula. Abandoning wife and child at age 29, Siddhartha set out on a quest for spiritual understanding. Six years later, at age 35, after a reputed 49 days of meditation, he is said to have attained Enlightenment and become the Buddha ("Awakened One"). For the remaining 45 years of his life, he traveled around the Ganges River basin teaching a diverse and growing following.
Appears in: BOS4, GG32/BCR65, BCR92/BOS1, GG42, GG6

MANJUSRI, Bodhisattva of Wisdom, the oldest and most significant bodhisattva in Mahāyāna literature. Manjusri is first referred to in early Mahayana sutras such as the Prajnaparamita sutras and through this association came to symbolize the embodiment of prajna (transcendent wisdom). He is frequently depicted wielding a flaming sword in his right hand, representing the realization of transcendent wisdom which cuts off ignorance and duality. In his left hand, he may be holding a Prajñāpāramitā sūtra resting on a lotus blossom, representing his attainment of ultimate realization from the blossoming of wisdom. He will often be shown riding a lion, representing the use of wisdom to tame the mind. Manjusri is one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas of Chinese Buddhism, the other three being Kṣitigarbha, Avalokiteśvara, and Samantabhadra.
Appears in: BCR92/BOS1, GG42, BCR84/BOS48, BCR35

PRAJNATARA (a.k.a. Keyura, 5th-century)
Lineage: 27th and last of the pre-Bodhidharma patriarchs
Heirs: Bodhidharma (460? - 536)
Prajñātārā was the twenty-seventh Brahmin patriarch of Indian Buddhism and the head of the Sarvastivada sect of early Buddhist schools. She traveled around East India preaching Buddhism. She was the student and heir of 26th patriarch, Punyamitra, who said she was an incarnation of the mahasattva Mahasthamaprapta. Prajnatara was ordained as a nun and was the head of the Sarvastivadins
Appears in: BOS3

MAZU Daoyi (Baso Doitsu, 709-788, 8th gen)
Lineage: Huineng (638-713) → Nanyue (677-744) → Mazu
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: Baizhang Huaihai (720-814), Xitang (735-814), Zhangjing (754-815), Yanguan (750-842), Damei (752-839), Guizong (n.d.), Pangyun "Layman Pang" (740-808), Mayu (n.d.), Panshan (720-814), Luzu (n.d.), Zhongyi (n.d.), Wujiu (n.d.), Nanquan (748-835)
founder of the Hongzhou school; said to have transmitted the dharma to 84 disciples (some sources say 139), of whom 13 are particularly well-known. Of the "Five Houses of Zen", two emerged from Mazu's descendants: the Linji (Rinzai) and Guiyang (Igyo) Houses. Certain distinctive attributes of Linji Zen are already evident in the record we have of Mazu, Linji's dharma great-grandfather. For instance, many of the teaching devices that came to be identified with Zen, especially Linji's Zen -- e.g., shouts, blows, enigmatic questions -- were first used by Mazu.
Books: Cheng Chien Bhikshu (Mario Poceski), intro and trans, Sun-Face Buddha: The Teachings of Ma-tsu and the Hung-chou School of Ch'an (1992). Mario Poceski, The Records of Mazu and the Making of Classical Chan Literature (2015). Fumio Yamada (Nick Bellando, trans), Master Ma's Ordinary Mind: The Sayings of Zen Master Mazu Daoyi (2017).
Appears in: GG30, GG33, BCR3/BOS36, BCR73/BOS6, BCR53.

BAIZHANG Huaihai (Hyakuo Ekai, 720-814, 9th gen).
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang
Dharma Siblings: Xitang (735-814), Zhangjing (754-815), Yanguan (750-842), Damei (752-839), Guizong (n.d.), Pangyun "Layman Pang" (740-808), Mayu (n.d.), Panshan (720-814), Luzu (n.d.), Zhongyi (n.d.), Wujiu (n.d.), Nanquan (748-835)
Heirs: Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850), Wufeng Changguan (n.d.), Guishan "Lazy An" Daan (793-883), Baizhang Niepan (n.d.), Guishan Lingyou (771-853)
Born to a powerful aristocratic family on the eastern seaboard province of Fuzhou (modern Fujian). Well-educated as a child, he entered monastic life as a teen under the teacher Huizhao, where the older novice who would become Master Yaoshan was also studying. After his full ordination at Mt. Heng, he moved to Lujian (in modern Anhui province) where he studied Buddhist scriptures. Then, while still in his twenties, he sought out Master Mazu at Gonggong Mountain in southern Jiangxi and became his disciple.
Baizhang established an early set of rules for Chan monastic discipline, the Pure Rules of Baizhang, and is also credited with originating the Chinese tea ceremony. He founded Baizhang monastery, which contained a monks hall, an innovation which became typical for Chan. Both the lifestyle he spelled out as well as the architectural form of his monastery became models for later Zen monasteries. As the Zen monks farmed, it helped them to survive the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution more than other sects which relied more on donations. Baizhang's rules are still used today in many Zen monasteries. His rules include the aphorism, "A day without work is a day without food."
Appears in: BCR73/BOS6, BCR53, BOS8, GG2, BCR26, BCR70, BCR71, BCR72, GG40

PANSHAN Baoji (Banzan Hoshaku, 720-814, 9th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Panshan
Dharma Siblings: Baizhang Huaihai (720-814), Xitang (735-814), Zhangjing (754-815), Yanguan (750-842), Damei (752-839), Guizong (n.d.), Pangyun "Layman Pang" (740-808), Mayu (n.d.), Luzu (n.d.), Zhongyi (n.d.), Wujiu (n.d.), Nanquan (748-835)
Heirs: Puhua?
His parents’ home was in ancient Youzhou (near present-day Beijing). After receiving Dharma transmission from Mazu, Panshan became the abbot of the Youzhou monastery in Hebei Province.
Appears in: BCR37

XITANG Zhizang (Seido Chizo, 735-814, 9th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Xitang
Dharma Siblings: Baizhang Huaihai (720-814), Zhangjing (754-815), Yanguan (750-842), Damei (752-839), Guizong (n.d.), Pangyun "Layman Pang" (740-808), Mayu (n.d.), Panshan (720-814), Luzu (n.d.), Zhongyi (n.d.), Wujiu (n.d.), Nanquan (748-835)
Heirs: none noted
Came from Qianhua City in ancient Qian Province. When young, he had an unusually noble appearance. People said that he would likely be an “assistant to the Dharma King” (a servant of Buddha). After receiving ordination at the age of twenty-five, he went traveling, and finally came to study under Mazu Daoyi. In 788, he became Abbot of Saido Temple in Kwangsi Province. Though none of his heirs are listed on the Chinese charts, his disciples included Korean monks Jilin Daoyi and Hongshe. These two adepts transmitted Zen to their native country. There, they helped to establish the “Nine Mountains,” nine prominent schools of Korean Zen.
Appears in: BCR73/BOS6

DANXIA Tianran (Tanka Tenen, 738-824, 9th gen).
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Danxia
Dharma Siblings: Yaoshan (751-841), Tianhuang Daowu (748-807)
Heirs: Cuiwei Wuxue (b. 780?)
Danxia came from Dengzhou. In his youth, he prepared for a career in administration, becoming well educated in Confucian texts. While traveling to the capital, Chang'an, to take the civil service examination, he had a dream that the whole room was filled with white light. Asking a fortune teller about this dream, he was told that his dream foretold a solution to emptiness. He then met a Chan monk, who asked him what his goal was. “I've decided to become a functionary," said Danxia. “What does the decision to become a functionary amount to compared with the decision to become a buddha?” replied the monk. “Where can I go if I want to become a buddha?” Danxia then asked. The monk suggested that he seek out the great Chan master Mazu, whereupon Danxia unhesitatingly set out to do so. Mazu soon sent him on to Shitou, under whom Danxia trained for some years. He went on to become one of Shitou's dharma successors. Later he returned to Mazu. Arriving in Mazu's monastery he sat himself astride the neck of a statue of Manjushri. The monks, upset by the outrageous behavior of the newcomer, reported this to Mazu, who came to see Danxia. “You are very natural, my son,” said Mazu. From this incident Danxia's monastic name Tianran (the Natural) is derived. After the death of Mazu, Danxia went on wandering pilgrimage and visited other great Chan masters of the time in order to train further. For three years he practiced in the monastery at the top of Huading Tiantai mountains. He also practiced for a time with master Jingshan Daoqin (714-792) from niutou school. At the age of eighty-one, he settled in a hermitage on Mount Danxia (in Hunan Province) from which his name is derived. Soon up to 300 students gathered there around him and built a monastery. Four years after his arrival on Mount Danxia, he suddenly said one day, “I'm going on a journey once again.” He picked up his hat and his pilgrim's robe and staff. When he had put on the second of his pilgrim's sandals, he passed away before his foot again touched the ground. Posthumous title: Zhitong chanshi (chan master pervading wisdom).
Appears in: BCR76

NANQUAN Puyuan (Nansen Fugan, 748-835, 9th gen).
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Nanquan
Dharma Siblings: Baizhang Huaihai (720-814), Xitang (735-814), Zhangjing (754-815), Yanguan (750-842), Damei (752-839), Guizong (n.d.), Pangyun "Layman Pang" (740-808), Mayu (n.d.), Panshan (720-814), Luzu (n.d.), Zhongyi (n.d.), Wujiu (n.d.)
Heirs: Changsha (788-868), Zhaozhou (778-897)
He came from Xinzheng, Zheng. In the year 795, after his enlightenment experience under Mǎzŭ, he settled in a self-made hut on Mount Nanquan, from which his dharma name is derived, and lived there in eremitic solitude for three decades. In time, monks persuaded him to come down the mountain and found a monastery; from that time forward, he always had hundreds of students. Nánquán had seventeen Dharma successors, the most famous of whom was Zhàozhōu. His lay surname was Wang, and even before he became an old Zen teacher his students referred to him as “Old Teacher Wang.” Before meeting Mazu, he was already widely versed in the various schools and scriptures of Mahayana Buddhism. At their first meeting, he is said to have “instantly forgot the net of delusions and delighted in samadhi.”
Appears in: BCR63/GG14/BOS9, BCR64/GG14/BOS9, GG19, GG27, BCR28, GG34, BCR31/BOS16, BCR40/BOS91, BCR69, BOS69, BOS93, BOS23, GG46/BOS79

HUANGBO Xiyun (Obaku Kiun, 766?-850, 10th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Huangbo
Dharma Siblings: Wufeng (n.d.), Guishan "Lazy An" Daan (793-883), Guishan Lingyou (771-853), Baizhang N (n.d.)
Heirs: Linji Yixuan (812-867), Muzhou (780-877)
Born in Fujian, China, Huangbo began his monastic life on Mt. Huangbo (he would later teach at a different monastery with the same name) in Fujian province. During his period of traveling around seeking instructions from various Chan masters, he visited Mt. Tiantai and received teachings from National Teacher Nanyang Huizhong (675-775). He may also have studied briefly under Nanquan Puyuan (748-835) before settling down with Baizhang Huaihai. When Huangbo, who was quite tall, first met Baizhang, Baizhang exclaimed, “Magnificent! Imposing! Where have you come from?” Huangbo replied, “Magnificent and imposing, I’ve come from the mountains.”
In 842, Pei Xiu, a government official in Kiangsi province, invited Huangbo to be resident teacher at Lung-hsing Monastery. Pei eventually built a monastery for Huángbò around 846, which the master named Huangbo after the mountain where he had been a novice monk.
Central teaching: centered on the concept of “mind” (or "heart/mind") Mind cannot be sought by the mind. “Mind is the Buddha,” he said. "All the Buddhas and all sentient beings are nothing but the One Mind, beside which nothing exists. The One Mind alone is the Buddha, and there is no distinction between the Buddha and sentient beings." And: "To awaken suddenly to the fact that your own Mind is the Buddha, that there is nothing to be attained or a single action to be performed - this is the Supreme Way."
As many of Huangbo's themes and phrasings are echoed in the record of his student, Linji, Huangbo is sometimes regarded as the true founder of the Linji school.
Books: John Blofield, trans. The Zen Teachings of Huang Po: On the Transmission of Mind (includes translations of two texts: the Ch’uan-hsin Fa-yao (Essential of Mind Transmission) and the Wan-ling Lu, both transcribed by Huangbo's student, Pei Xiu, with editing and emendation by Huangbo's senior monks.)
Posthumous name: Tuan Chi Chan Shih (Chan Master Without Limits)
Appears in: GG2, BCR11/BOS53, BOS86

GUISHAN Lingyou (Isan Reiyu, 771-853, 10th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Guishan L
Dharma Siblings: Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850), Wufeng (n.d.), Guishan "Lazy An" Daan (793-883), Baizhang N (n.d.)
Heirs: Lingyun Zhiqin (n.d), Jingzhao Mihu (n.d.), Yangshan Huiji (807-83), Xiangyan Zhixian (??-898), Liu Tiemo (n.d.)
Guishan and his disciple, Yangshan, are the founders of the Gui-Yang House, the first of the fabled "Five Houses of Zen." Born in Changxi, Fujian province, he became a Buddhist monk at age 15, and received tonsure ceremony at Shanjian (Build Goodness) Temple in Fujian. He received the monastic precepts at Longxing Temple in Hangzhou where he studied sutra and Vinaya Pitaka. In 794, at age 23, he traveled to Jianxi to study under Baizhang Huaihai. Baizhang permitted Guishan to become his disciple upon their first meeting. In 820, at age 49, he became the abbot of Tongqing Temple in Guishan, Hunan Province. The Guiyang school is characterized by use of symbols, symbolic actions, and metaphors, thus Guiyang Zen is the Zen school most closely aligned to Buddhsm's esoteric schools.
Appears in: BCR70, BOS83, GG40, BCR4, BCR24/BOS60, BOS15, BOS37

ZHAOZHOU Congshen (Joshu Jushin, 778-897, 10th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Nanquan (748-835) → Zhaozhou
Dharma Sibling: Changsha Jingcen (788-868)
Heirs: Yanyang Shanxin (n.d.)
Taught at Guanyin Monastery, Zhao Regeion (Hebei). Posthumous name: Great Master Zhenji. At age 18, Zhaozhou met Nanquan, with whom he practiced until Nanquan's death, when Zhaozhou was about 57. After that, Zhaozhou spent more than 20 years on pilgrimage, visiting various prominent Chan masters. At age 80, he settled at Guanyin and for the next 40 years taught a small group of monks until his death at age 120. Zhaozhou is often regarded as the greatest Chan master of Tang dynasty China. Because of the many wars and purges of Buddhism in the China of the time, Zhaozhou's lineage died out quickly -- he had one heir, Yanyang, and he had no known heirs.
Books: Radical Zen: The Sayings of Joshu (Trans with commentary by Yoel Hoffman, 1978). The Recorded Sayings of Zen Master Joshu (Trans and introduced by James Green, 2001).
Appears in: GG14/BCR63-64/BOS9, GG19, GG1, BOS18, GG7/BOS39, GG11, GG31/BOS10, GG37/BOS47, BCR2, BCR9, BCR30, BCR41/BOS63, BCR45, BCR52, BCR57, BCR58, BCR59, BCR80, BCR96, BOS57

BAIZHANG Niepan (Hyakuo Nehan, b. 780?, 10th gen).
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Baizhang N
Dharma Siblings: Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850), Wufeng Changguan (n.d.), Guishan "Lazy An" Daan (793-883), Guishan Lingyou (771-853)
Heirs: none noted
Little is recorded of Baizhang Niepan’s life. Upon the death of his teacher, he assumed the abbacy of his temple.

YUNYAN Tansheng (Ungan Donjo, 780-841, 10th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Yaoshan (751-834) → Yunyan
Dharma Siblings: Chuanzi (n.d.), Daowu (769-835)
Heirs: Dongshan (807-69)
Yunyan, from Jianchang, became a monk at age 16 at Shimen Temple under the teaching of Baizhang Huaihai (720-814). Yunyan stayed with Baizhang, 20 years, until Baizhang's death. He then visited many teachers before settling with Yaoshan Weiyan (751-834). Yunyan later taught at Yunyan Mountain ("Cold Crag Mountain"), near modern Changsha. Recorded dialogues involving Yunyan often also include Daowu Yuanzhi (760-835), his fellow student under Yaoshan. Yunyan supposedly died from illness, the day before which he ordered his students to prepare for a banquet because a monk was preparing to depart the monastery. Some sources say that both Dongshan's Five Ranks and the "Song of the Jeweled-Mirror Samadhi" (usually attributed to Dongshan) were actually passed down to Dongshan from Yunyan. Posthumous title: Great Teacher No Abode.
Appears in: BCR70, BCR72, BCR89/BOS54, BOS21, BOS49

MUZHOU Daoming (or Daozong) (Bokushu Domyo, 780-877, 11th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850) → Muzhou
Dharma Sibling: Linji Yixuan (812-867)
Heirs: none noted, though Yunmen (864-949) is said to have studied with him and come to great enlightenment under him (this is perhaps doubtful as Yunmen would have been only 13 when Muzhou died)
Muzhou studied the vinaya as a youth, then became a disciple of Huangbo. Afterwards he lived at the temple Guanyin yuan in Muzhou in present Zhejiang, then at Longxing si, a temple that later texts call Kaiyuan si. There people called him Chen Puxie (Rush-sandal Chen) from the rush sandals he plaited and hung under the eaves of the temple to give or sell to passersby. His methods of handling such students as came to him were eccentric, even violent, but he appears to have been much respected among his contemporaries.
Books: Muzhou yulu (Recorded sayings of Muzhou), apparently not available in English.
Appears in BOS86, BCR10

DESHAN Xuanjian (Tokusan Senkan, 782-865, 11th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: Xuefeng Yicun (822-908), Yantou (828-87), Gantan Ziguo (810?-880?)
Though his lineage is from Shitou, Deshan employed the vigorous methods more common among Mazu's descendants: he was a fiery teacher fond of using the stick to cajole his monks to greater efforts. ("If you speak, you get thirty blows. If you do not speak, you get thirty blows," he said.) Through Xuefeng, Deshan is the ancestor to two of the Five Houses of Zen: the Yunmen and Fayan Schools. Deshan was a scholar focused on the Vinaya, and became famous for his knowledge of the Diamond Sutra. After an encounter with an old woman convinced him that scriptural study was insufficient, he studied Zen under Longtan. Under Emperor Wuzong of Tang a brief but intense Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution forced Deshan from a thirty year long position in Lizhou into hiding on Mt. Dufu. Afterwards the governor of Wuleng in the Lang Region (Hunan) asked Deshan to come to live on Mount Virtue (Mount De, i.e. Deshan), where he established his monastery and taught. Posthumous name: Great Master Jianxing.
Appears in: GG28, BCR4, BOS22, GG13/BOS55, BOS14

CHANGSHA Jingcen (Chosha Keishin, 788-868, 10th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Nanquan (748-835) → Changsha
Dharma Sibling: Zhaozhou Congshen (778-897)
Heirs: none noted
Ordained as a monastic at an early age. Although he is known to have lived in the city of Changsha at Lushan Temple, he roamed China expounding the Dharma according to the situations he encountered. He possessed an extremely pointed and aggressive style of instruction. Thus, after he literally climbed on top of Yangshan, he was widely likened to a tiger and nicknamed "Tiger Cen." The lamp records offer evidence of his incisive lectures.
Appears in: BCR36, GG46/BOS79

GUISHAN Daan, aka Changqing Daan, "Lazy An" (Isan Daian, 793-883, 10th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Guishan D
Dharma Siblings: Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850), Wufeng (n.d.), Baizhang N (n.d.), Guishan L (771-853)
Heirs: Dasui "Shenzhao" Fazhen (834-919)
Grew up and taught in ancient Fuzhou (in modern Fujian Province). At the age of twenty, he went to Mt. Huangbo in Jiangxi and studied the Vinaya. Later he declared, "Despite my hard efforts I still haven't encountered the principle of the great mystery." He thereafter set off in search of the truth. On the advice of an old man he met on the road, he traveled to Nanchang City in Jiangxi and began study under Baizhang Huaihai. His Dharma brother Guishan L had established temple on Mt. Gui, and when Guishan L died, Guishan D, then age 60, was invited to assume the abbacy of that temple. Later, he taught at Changqing Monastery, Fu Region (Fujian).
Posthumous title: "Zen Master Perfect Wisdom.”
Appears in: BOS87

XIANGYAN Zhixian (Kyogen Chikan, 798?-898, 11th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Guishan L (771-853) → Xiangyan
Dharma Sibblings: Lingyun (n.d.), Jingzhao (n.d.), Yanshan (807-83), Liu Tiemo (n.d.)
Heirs: none noted
Came from ancient Qingzhou (the modern city of Yidu), Shandong. Extremely intelligent and quick witted; first studied under Baizhang, but was unable to penetrate the heart of Zen. After Baizhang died, Xiangyan studied under Guishan. Despite his cleverness, he was unsuccessful at realizing his teacher’s meaning. Years later, his mind far removed from his earlier confused attempts to attain what he thought to be enlightenment, Xiangyan realized the great way. Xiangyan's death is recorded as 898. Since Baizhang died in 814, Xiangyan was very young when he studied with Baizhang and very old at death. The birth year guess, 798?, would put him at 16 when Baizhang died and 100 when he himself died.
Appears in: GG5

LIU Tiemo (Ryu Tetsuma, 800?-??, 11th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Guishan L (771-853) → Liu
Dharma Siblings: Lingyun Zhiqin (n.d), Jingzhao Mihu (n.d.), Yangshan Huiji (807-83), Xiangyan Zhixian (??-898)
Heirs: none noted
Liu was her family name. Tiemo was a nickname meaning "Iron Grindstone." After receiving the Dharma seal from Guishan, Liu lived a few miles away from him and would periodically come to visit. She taught Zen in a style described as "precipitously awesome and dangerous." Her ability to test the true mettle of Zen adepts brought her the name "Iron Grinder."
Appears in BCR24/BOS60

JIASHAN Shanhui (Kassan Zenne, 805-81, 11th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Yaoshan (751-834) → Chuanzi (n.d.) → Jiashan
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: Luopu (834-98)
Jiashan left home at a young age for monastic life. After taking the monk’s vows at age twenty, he focused on sutra study. One day while lecturing to the assembly about a sutra, a visiting monk, Daowu Yuanzhi (769-835), began laughing and said that Jiashan needed a teacher because his sutra lecture was missing the point. Daowu recommended that Jiashan go see Chuanzi, "the Boat Monk," Daowu's dharma brother. Although Jiashan’s understanding of Buddhism was already extensive, he did not attain complete awakening until meeting Chuanzi. After giving transmission to Jiashan, his only successor, Chuanzi disappeared and was never heard from again. Jiashan then moved into the mountains to live in seclusion, but large numbers of students came to study with him, building thatched huts scattered around Jiashan's. Finally, in 870, the assembly moved to Mt. Jia where they built a temple. Jiashan was the first Zen master known to closely link Zen with drinking tea. He described their intimacy as “Zen, tea, one taste.”
Appears in: BOS35, BOS68

DONGSHAN Liangjie (Tozan Ryokai, 807-69, 11th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Yaoshan (751-834) → Yunyan (780-841) → Dongshan
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: Yunju (d. 902), Qinshan (n.d.), Longya (835-923), Yuezhou (n.d.), Caoshan (840-901), Qinglin (d. 904), Shushan (n.d.)
Dongshan was born in Kuaiji (present-day Shaoxing, Zhejiang), south of Hangzhou Bay. He started private studies in Chan at a young age, and showed promise by questioning the fundamental Doctrine of the Six Roots during his tutor's recitation of the Heart Sutra. Though only 10-years-old, he then left home to train with Lingmo at the monastery on Wutai Mountain. At 21, he went to Shaolin Monastery on Mount Song, where he took the complete monk's precepts. He wandered extensively among the Chan masters and hermits in the Hongzhou region. He studied with Nanquan (748-835), and then with Guishan (771-853), before settling down with Yunyan. At 52, Dongshan established a school at Mount Dong, Rui Region (Jiangxi) where he had 500-1,000 students at any given time. He is the founder of the Caodong (Soto) school, one of the Five Houses of Zen, named after him and his pupil, Caoshan (Hence "Caodong" from CAOshan + DONGshan -- in Japanese, "Soto" from SOzan + TOzan). Dongshan announced the end of his life several days before the event and told his students to create a "delusion banquet." After a week of preparations, he took one bite of the meal and, telling the students not to "make a great commotion over nothing," went to his room and died.
Dongshan is the author of the "Song of the Jeweled-Mirror Samadhi" (Boundless Way Zen Chant Book), and is also known for his teaching on "The Five Ranks" (The Absolute within the Relative; The Relative within the Absolute; The Coming from Within the Absolute; The Contrasted Relative Alone; and Unity Attained). Posthumous name: Great Master Wuben.
Appears in: BOS22, BCR43, BOS49, BOS56, BOS89, BOS94, BOS98

YANGSHAN Huiji (Kyozan Ejaku, 807-83, 11th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Guishan Lingyou (771-853) → Yangshan
Dharma Siblings: Lingyun (n.d), Jingzhao (b. 811?), Xiangyan (d. 898), Liu Tiemo (n.d.)
Heirs: Xita (n.d.), Nanta (850-938)
Yangshan became a monk at age 17. When his parents at first refused permission for him to leave home to become a monk, he cut off two of his fingers to demonstrate his resolve. He studied with various masters, including Danyuan Yingzhen, disciple of National Teacher Nanyang Huizhong. With Danyuan, Yangshan had his first great insight. After Danyuan's death, he went to study with Guishan Lingyou and became Guishan's main disciple. Together they are the founders of the Guiyang school, one of the "Five Houses of Zen" ("Guiyang" from GUIshan + YANGshan). Teacher and pupil had the closest spiritual affinity. The Guiyang school is thus characterized by the gentle master-disciple-friends style of teaching, in contrast to the fervent, energetic, and often physical methods employed by other descendants of Mazu (e.g., Huangbo, Linji). The school is also distinct in its use of esoteric metaphors and imagery. Yangshan taught at Mt. Yang, Yuan Region (Jiangxi). Posthumous name: Tongzhi.
Appears in BOS72, BOS15, BOS37, GG25/BOS90, BCR34, BCR68, BOS26, BOS32, BOS62, BOS77

SHISHUANG Qingzhu (Sekiso Keisho, 807-88, 11th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-790) → Yaoshan (751-834) → Daowu (769-835) → Shishuang
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: Jiufeng Daoqian (850?-923), Daguang Juhui (837-903), Yungai Zhiyuan
He came from the city of Xingan near ancient Luling, was ordained by Zen master Xishan Shaolong on Mt. Tai at the age 23, and began studying the Vinaya. Finding this path to be too slow, he traveled to Mt. Gui, where he studied with Guishan Lingyou and worked preparing food in the kitchen. Later, he was a disciple of Yaoshan, and then of Yaoshan's disciple, Daowu. After Daowu's death, and during the Huishang persecution (845-847), Shishuang stayed in Linyang working as a ceramic assistant. When the persecution ended, Dongshan Liangjie sent his monk to find him. Eventually, Shishuang constructed his temple on Mt. Shishuang in Hunan Province, and taught there for 20 years. (Another Chan master, Shishuang Chuyuan, taught at this location about 200 years later.) Shishuang created "seven instructions to practice," short maxims to help his students in meditation, such as "cold ash or dry wood," "white silk," "censer in an old temple," etc. These maxims were criticized, along with "silent illumination" generally, by Dahui Zonggao. Some of Shishuang's students meditated extremely rigorously, without movement, even without sleeping. Shishuang's reputation spread to Emperor Xizong, who offered him an honorary purple robe, which Shishuang did not accept. Posthumous name: Great Teacher of Universal Understanding.
Appears in: BCR91/BOS25, BCR55, BOS68, BOS89, BOS96

JINGZHAO Mihu (Keicho Beiko, b. 810?, 11th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Guishan Lingyou (771-853) → Jingzhao
Dharma Siblings: Lingyun (n.d), Yangshan (807-83), Xiangyan (d. 898), Liu Tiemo (n.d.)
Heirs: none noted
Little is known. He taught in the ancient Chinese capitol city, Jingzhao (also known as Changan) from which he gets his name. Mihu means "Mi the Foreigner," and he was also called Master Mi the Seventh, since, in lay life, he was the seventh child of his house. He was known for a magnificent beard.
Appears in: BOS62

JINHUA Juzhi (Kinka Gutei, b. 810?, 11th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Damei (720-814) → Hangzhou (d. 9th c) → Jinhua
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
Jinhua Juzhi lived during the time of the fierce persecution of Buddhism under Emperor Wuzong (reigned 840-46). Jinhua worked in what is now the province of Zhejiang, at Jinhua. There is a temple in the Province of Fujian in which there is said to be a clay figure of Jinhua Juzhi, and it is possible that he was buried there. His teacher, Hangzhou, is said to started the technique of holding up one finger, though Jinhua became famous as the chief representative of the group of teachers who made use of it.
Appears in: BCR19/BOS84GG3

LINJI Yixuan (Rinzai Gigen, 812-867, 11th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850) → Linji
Dharma Sibling: Muzhou (780-877)
Heirs: Xinghua Cunjiang (830-88), Baoshou Yanzhao (830?-900?), Sansheng Huiran (830?-900?)
Linji is the founding figure of the Linji House, one of the five houses of Zen. Taught at Linji Monastery, Zhen Region (Hebei). Posthumous name: Great Master Huizhao.
Books: The Record of Linji has 5 parts and is available with commentary in translations by Ruth Fuller Sasaki (1975), Burton Watson (1993), Thich Nhat Hanh (Nothing to Do, Nowhere to Go, 2007, includes the first two parts, about 2/3rds of the whole), Broughton and Watanabe (2013).
Appears in BOS86, BCR32, BOS13, BOS38, BOS95, BCR20/BOS80

TOUZI Datong (Tosu Daido, 819-914, 11th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-790) → Danxia (738-824) → Cuiwei (n.d.) → Touzi
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
From ancient Shuzhou (in the southern part of modern Anwei Province). Left home as a young man to study under a Zen master named Bao Tangman. He first studied meditation techniques of the Anapana Sutra. Some time later he read the Flower Garland Sutra and proceeded to study under Cuiwei Wuxue. After his enlightenment under Cuiwei, he roamed throughout China, eventually returning to his old home and settling on Mt. Touzi. There he built a thatched hut and remained obscure for more than thirty years. Touzi’s eminence as a Zen adept could not be concealed, and the great Zhaozhou came looking for him.
Appears in: BCR91, BCR41/BOS63, BCR80, BCR79

WUZHUO Wenxi (Mujaku Bunki, 821-900, 12th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Guishan (771-853) → Yangshan (807-83) → Wuzhuo
Dharma Siblings: Xita (n.d.), Nanta (850-938)
Heirs: none noted
After three years on Mount Wutai (Taishan), Wuzhuo became the disciple and heir of Yangshan. At age 76, three years before his death, the title "Chan Master Wuzhuo" ("No Attachment") imperially bestowed upon him. The Old Woman of Taishan (see GG31/BOS10) may have formally studied with Wuzhuo. In any case, they appear to have traveled on pilgrimage together.
Appears in: BCR35

XUEFENG Yicun (Seppo Gison, 822-908, 12th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng
Dharma Siblings: Yantou Quanhuo (828-87), Gantan Ziguo (810?-880?)
Heirs: Xuansha (835-908), Changqing (854-932), Yunmen (864-949), Baofu (868?-928), Cuiyan (n.d.), Jingqing (868-937), Taiyuan Fu (n.d.)
Xuefeng left home at age 12 to live at Yujian Temple (Putian City). At age 19, the five-year suppression of Buddhism (841-846) forced Xuefeng from the monastery, yet his training continued, now with Yuanzhao on Lotus Mountain (Hunan). When the suppression ended, Xuefeng began traveling around, visiting various monasteries in Northern China before settling down at Wuling (Hunan) to study with Deshan. At length, Deshan authorized him to teach, and Xuefeng returned to Lotus Mountain and built a monastery on the top of Guangfu Xuefeng (Snow Summit), in the Fu Region (Fujian). In the mid-870s, his monastery was officially recognized by the authorities and his teachings were supported by several officials in the region, leading eventually to Xuefeng receiving from Emperor Xizong a purple robe and the title of "Grand Master of the truly enlightened." In 891, now almost 70, Xuefeng went traveling again. Soon he joined the attendants of Yang Xingmi, ruler of the newly established Wu regime, "cleansing soldiers with dharma-rain and performing ceremonies at Chan monasteries". This strengthened his reputation "as a Buddhist prelate who administered to the needs of local rulers". In 894, he returned to the Min region, where he lived out his days as a state prelate, a master with a central role in promoting Buddhism who spread his influence throughout the region. Posthumous name: Great Master Zhenjue. Two of the Five Houses of Zen descend from Xuefeng: the Yunmen school (from Xuefeng's immediate heir, Yunmen), and the Fayan school (from heir Xuansha to Luohan to Fayan).
Books: Record of Discussions in the Palace regarding the Buddha Mind-seal (apparently not available in English) records Xuefeng's conversations with Wang Shenzhi.
Appears in GG13/BOS55, BCR5, BCR22/BOS24, BCR51/BOS50, BCR66

YANTOU Quanhuo (Ganto Zenkatsu, 828-87, 12th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Yantou
Dharma Sibling: Xuefeng Yicun (822-908), Gantan Ziguo (810?-880?)
Heirs: Luoshan (n.d.), Ruiyan (n.d.)
Born in Quanzhou and became a novice monk at Baoshu Temple in Changan. An avid traveler, Yantou eventually began studying under Deshan and went on to become master of Yantou Monastery, on Mount Yantou in Ezhou, Hubei. He was known for his sharpness and sagacity. During the period of the great persecution of Buddhism in China (841-846), he became a ferryman on a lake. In 887 his temple was raided by bandits, one of whom stabbed Yantou, murdering him. It is said that his scream at death could be heard for ten miles. Posthumous name: Great Master Qingyan.
Appears in: GG13/BOS55, BOS22, BCR51/BOS50, BCR66, BOS43, BOS75

XINGHUA Cunjiang (Koko Sonsho, 830-88, 12th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850) → Linji Yixuan (812-867) → Xinghua
Dharma Siblings: Baoshou Yanzhao (830?-900?), Sansheng Huiran (830?-900?)
Heirs: Nanyuan Huiyong (860-930)
Lived and taught in ancient Weizhou (along the Yellow River, southwest of the modern city Jinan, Shandong). He studied with Linji, and after Linji died, was chief mok for his dharma sibling Sansheng, and later he saw Dajiao, another dharma sibling. Of Linji's three dharma heirs, only the line going through Xinghua survives.
Appears in: BOS97

RUIYAN Shiyan (Zuigan Shigen, 830?-900?, 13th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Yantou (828-87) → Ruiyan
Dharma Siblings: Luoshan (n.d.)
Heirs: none noted
Master Ruiyan Shiyan came from Fujian Province. He studied first with Master Jiashan Shanhui, before becoming a student of Master Yantou Quanhuo. Later, he settled and taught at Auspicious Cliff (Ruiyan) in Tanzhou, Hunan. He was known to often sit outside on a large rock, and could sometimes be heard calling out to himself, “Master!"
Appears in: BOS75, GG12

SANSHENG Huiran (Sansho Enen, 830?-900?, 12th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850) → Linji Yixuan (812?-867) → Sansheng
Dharma Siblings: Xinghua Cunjiang (830-88), Baoshou Yanzhao (830?-900?)
Heirs: none noted
Sansheng collected the written teachings and statements of Linji, producing The Record of Linji. After Linji's death, Sansheng visited many masters, including Yangshan, Xiangyan, Deshan, and Daowu among others. Each such meeting improved his skills. Eventually he settled in Zhenzhou (now the city of Zhengding in Hebei ) and taught at the Sansheng Monastery .
Appears in BCR68, BOS13, BCR49/BOS33

YUEZHOU Qianfeng (Esshu Kempo, 831?-??, 12th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Yaoshan (751-834) → Yunyan (780-841) → Dongshan (807-69) → Yuezhou
Dharma Siblings: Yunju Daoying (d. 902), Qinshan Wenshi (nd), Longya Judan (835-925), Caoshan Benji (840-901), Qinglin Shiqian (d. 904), Shushan Kuangren (nd)
Heirs: none noted
Lived in Yuezhou, in present-day Zhejiang. Otherwise, nothing is known.
Appears in: BOS40, GG48/BOS61

DASUI "Shenzhao" Fazhen (Daizui Hoshin, 834-919, 11th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Guishan D (793-883) → Dasui
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
"He came from ancient Zizhou (now the city of Santai in Sichuan Province). He is recorded to have experienced great enlightenment while still quite young. After becoming a monk at Huiyi Temple, he traveled extensively and studied with the teachers Daowu Yuanzhi [769-835], Yunyan Tansheng [780-841], and Dongshan Liangjie [807-69], among others. Some accounts describe him as a diligent student and heir of the Guiyang Zen lineage, although both the Transmission of the Lamp and the Book of Serenity describe him as a student of Changqing Da’an, making Guishan his Dharma uncle. Eventually returning to his native Sichuan, he first lived at Mt. Shankou’s Longhuai Temple. Later he dwelled for more than ten years in a large hollow tree at the site of an old temple behind Mt. Dasui" (Ferguson).
[NOTE: RDM Shaw's BCR (1961), Sekida, Ferguson, and others give Dasui's dates as 878-963. But Ferguson's bio of Dasui claims that Dasui studied with Daowu Yuanzhi (dead 43 yrs before 878), Yunyan Tansheng (dead 37 years before 878), Dongshan Liangjie (dead 9 years before 878) and Changqing Daan (dead just 5 years after 878). Terebess gives two sets of dates -- 878-963 and 834-919. Loori and the Polish Wikipedia also give 834-919. Moreover, Ferguson includes an anecdote about Dasui that indicates Dasui died about the time Touzi Datong died, and Touzi's death is indicated as 914. So I'm going with 834-919. This means Dasui could not have studied with Daowu (who died when Dasui would have been 1-y-o) nor with Yunyan (who died when Dasui would have been 7-y-o), though Dasui perhaps did study with Dongshan (who died when Dasui would have been 35-y-o) and then with Changqing Daan (who died when Dasui was 49-y-o).]
Appears in: BCR29, BOS30

LUOPU Yuanan (Rakuho Genan, 834-98, 12th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Yaoshan (751-834) → Chuanzi (n.d.) → Jiashan (805-81) → Luopu
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
Luopu came from ancient Linyou (now located in modern Jiangxi Province). Ordained at the age of twenty, he was well versed in Buddhist scriptures and doctrine. He studied under Linji Yixuan (812-867) and served as Linji's attendant before leaving to build a hut on the mountain where Jiashan's monastery was. Eventually moving into Jiashan's monastery, Luopu studied with Jiashan for many years. After leaving Jiashan, he first lived at Lizhou (now Li County in Hunan Province) on Mt. Luopu, where he gained his mountain name. He then lived at Suxi (in modern Hunan Province). Luopu was known as a skilled expounder of Dharma, and students came from throughout China to study under him.
Appears in: BOS35, BOS41

QINGLIN Shiqian (Seirin Shiken, 834?-904, 12th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Yaoshan (751-834) → Yunyan (780-841) → Dongshan (807-69) → Qinglin
Dharma Siblings: Yunju (d. 904), Qinshan (n.d.), Longya (835-923), Yuezhou (n.d.), Caoshan (840-901), Shushan (n.d.)
Heirs: none noted
Origins obscure. After training with Dongshan, Qinglin went to the Qingcun Mountains in Shannnafu and lived there in a hut. Ten years later, he suddenly remembered something Dongshan had told him and decided to act for the good of many people. He went to Suizhou, where he was invited to take the post of abbot in the Green Forest Monastery. Hence his name, "Qinglin," which means "Green Forest." After some time he moved back to Mount Dong.
Appears in: BOS59

XUANSHA Shibei (Gensha Shibi, 835-908, 13th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Xuansha
Dharma Siblings: Cuiyan (n.d.), Jingqing (868-937), Taiyuan (n.d.), Yunmen (864-949), Baofu (d. 928), Changqing (854-932)
Heirs: Luohan "Dizang" Guichen (867-928)
Xuansha came from ancient Fuzhou. As a young man he lived as a fisherman on the Nantai River, as did his father. "Once when they were out fishing together, they had an accident and his father fell into the sea. Xuansha tried to save him but couldn't. After his father drowned, in his remorse and despair, Xuansha decided to become a monk and to practice Zen" (Wick). At the rather late age of thirty he left lay life to enter a temple on Lotus Mountain. Later he was ordained by the Vinaya master Lingxun at Kaiyuan Temple in Yuzhang (near modern Nanchang). He carried on an ascetic practice, wearing only a patched robe and straw sandals. ("With straw sandals, muslin clothing, and turnips for food, he was content" --Wansong, BOS81). He often fasted instead of taking the evening meal, and was regarded as unusual by the other monks. He was called “Ascetic Bei.” His relationship with Xuefeng was like that of a younger brother. As his close disciple, Xuansha worked with Xuefeng to build his teacher’s practice center. He is said to have awakened one day upon reading the words of the Surangama Sutra. After leaving Xuefeng he first lived at the Puying Monastery. Later he moved to Xuansha Mountain in Fuzhou, where he remained for the next thirty years. The governor of Min honored him, presenting him with the purple robe and the title “Great Teacher of the One Doctrine.”
Appears in: BOS21, BCR22/BOS24, BCR88, BOS81

SHUSHAN Kuangren (Sozan Kyônin, 837-909, 12th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-790) → Yaoshan (751-834) → Yunyan (780-841) → Dongshan (807-69) → Shushan
Dharma Siblings: Yunju Daoying (d. 902), Qinshan Wensui (n.d.), Longya Judun (835-923), Yuezhou Qianfeng (n.d.), Caoshan Benji (840-901), Qinglin Shiqian (d. 904)
Shushan Kuangren is regarded as a disciple and Dharma heir of Dongshan Liangjie, but his search for enlightenment took him to many teachers. He came from ancient Jizhou (the site of the modern city of Ji’an in Jiangxi Province). Shushan eventually lived and taught at Mt. Shu. He was very short in physical stature, and thus earned the nick-name “the dwarf teacher.” (Ferguson) He seems to have been a rather contradictory fellow who traveled around a lot to many teachers. In addition to being short, apparently he was also ugly and often sickly. The other monks contemptuously called him Uncle Dwarf. Yet he was cleverer than they and often bested them in Dharma combat. He was not well loved by his peers. It was said that his innate power in displaying the innermost mystery was that of a person who could chew the iron tip of an arrow. He was very tenacious. When monks were stumped in their studies, they would say, "You only have to ask Uncle Dwarf." He was a high-maintenance monk -- the burr under the saddle of many of his teachers. (Wick)
Appears in: BOS87

CAOSHAN Benji (Sozan Honjaku, 840-901, 12th gen).
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Yaoshan (751-834) → Yunyan (780-841) → Dongshan (807-69) → Caoshan
Dharma Siblings: Yunju (d. 902), Qinshan (n.d.), Longya (835-923), Yuezhou (n.d.), Qinglin (d. 904), Shushan (n.d.)
Heirs: none noted
Caoshan and his teacher, Dongshan, are the co-founders of the Caodong (Soto) School. Caoshan was born in Putian in Quanzhou, Fujian Province to the Huang family. In his youth he studied Confucianism. He left home at 19 and entered the Linji Monastery in Futang, Fuzhou. At age 25, he became a monk and, soon after, student of Dongshan Liangjie , whom he met at Dong Mountain. After several years and after receiving Dharma transmission, he left his master and, in Fuzhou, founded a new monastery, which he named Caoshan (Mount Cao), in honor of the Sixth Patriarch Huineng , whose monastery was called Caoxi (Cao Stream). In teaching, he used Dongshan's wuwei system (five ranks, relations), which helped to spread it and to separate the teaching style of the Caodong School from others. He had 14 enlightened students, of whom the most outstanding was Yunju Daoying (830-902), who is however considered a student of Dongshan.
Appears in: GG10, BOS52, BOS73

JIUFENG Daoqian (Kyuho Doken, 850?-923, 12th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Yaoshan (751-834) → Daowu (769-835) → Shishuang Q (807-88) → Jiufeng
Dharma Siblings: Daguang Juhui (837-903)
Heirs: Heshan Wuyin (891-960)
He came from ancient Fuzhou. He became personal attendant to Shishuang Q. After Shishuang's death, at the invitation of the other monks, Jiufeng became abbott Shishuang's monastery. He later moved to Jiufeng ("Nine peaks") in Ruizhou, near modern Gao'an, Jiangxi. During his later years he lived at Shimen, where he had many students. Finally, he moved to Letan and died there.
Appears in: BOS96, BOS66

CUIYAN Lingcan (Suigan Reisan, 850?-940?, 13th gen).
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Cuiyan
Dharma Siblings: Changqing (854-932), Jingqing (868-937), Taiyuan (n.d.), Xuansha (835-908), Baofu (868?-928), Yunmen (864-949)
Heirs: none noted
Cuiyan came from ancient Anji (southwest of Xuzhou in modern Zhejiang). He lived and taught at Mt. Cuiyan in Mingzhou. One of the foremost students of Xuefeng, he attracted a large congregation of students from throughout China.
Appears in BCR8/BOS71.

CHANGQING Huileng (Chôkei Eryô, 854-932, 13th gen).
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Changqing
Dharma Siblings: Cuiyan (n.d.), Jingqing (868-937), Taiyuan (n.d.), Xuansha (835-908), Baofu (868?-928), Yunmen (864-949)
Heirs: Wang Yanbin (n.d.), Zizhao (BOS64)
Changqing came from Yanzhou (southwest of today's Haining city in Zhejiang province). He joined the Tongxuan monastery at age 13 and then practiced for some time with several Chan masters. Around 879 he studied with master Xiyuan Siming in Fujian, then he was a disciple of Lingyun Zhiqin - then began to have serious doubts about his Chan practice. Later he became a student of Xuefeng Yicun (822 - 902) in Fuzhou. He had great difficulty with Chan practice and seemed to be making no progress. Tradition holds that he wore out seven meditation cushions. Xuefeng provided Changqing with “the medicine a horse doctor uses to bring a dead horse alive again.” He instructed Changqing to practice meditation in the hall as if he were a “dead tree stump.” Changqing followed this practice for two and a half years. When he could no longer sit, he went to the monastery garden. late one night, after others had gone to bed, he rolled up a bamboo screen and his eye fell upon the light of a lantern. At that moment he woke up. Changqing was with Xuefeng for 29 years. Then, in 908, the governor of Fuzhou, Wang Yanbin, invited Changqing to become abbot of the Changqing Monastery. He served in that capacity for 20 years. He had 1,500 students and 26 of them achieved enlightenment.
Appears in: BCR8/BOS71, BCR22/BOS24, BCR23, BCR74, BCR76, BCR93, BCR95.

XIYUAN Siming (Saiin Shimyô, 860?-930?, 13th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850) → Linji Yixuan (812-867) → Baoshou Yanzhao (830?-900?) → Xiyuan
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
"He lived and taught in Ruzhou. Little is recorded about Xiyuan in the main lamp records" (Ferguson).
Appears in BCR98

LUOSHAN Daoxian (Razan Dokan, 860-930, 13th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Yantou (828-87) → Luoshan
Dharma Siblings: Ruiyan Shiyan (n.d.)
Heirs: Mingzhao (n.d.)
He came from the former Changxi , now the city of Xiapu in prov. Fujian province. He left home to become a Buddhist monk and stayed first on Mount Gui (Mount Turtle). After ordination, he embarked on a journey visiting many teachers. He studied with Xuefeng Yicun before becoming a disciple and heir of Xuefeng's Dharma brother, Yantou. One day, feeling the approaching death, he climbed the platform and opened his left hand. When no one understood, he ordered the monks on the eastern side to leave. Then he opened his right hand. Still no one understood, and he ordered the monks on the western side to leave. With only lay folk left, he said, "If you want to express your gratitude for the Buddha's goodness for you, you can not be too serious in promoting great teaching. Now, get out! Take care!" He laughed and died.
Appears in: BOS43

YUNMEN Wenyan (Ummon Bun'en, 864-949, 13th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Yunmen
Dharma Siblings: Cuiyan (n.d.), Jingqing (868-937), Taiyuan (n.d.), Xuansha (835-908), Baofu (d. 928), Changqing (854-932)
Heirs: Xianglin Chengyuan (908-87), Fengxian Daoshen (n.d.), Baling Haojian (895?-965?), Deshan "Yuanming" Yuanmi (908-87), Dongshan Shouchu (910-90)
Yunmen founded the Yunmen school, one of the five major Houses of Zen. The Yunmen school flourished into the early Song Dynasty, with particular influence on the upper classes, and eventually culminating in the compilation and writing of the Blue Cliff Record. The school would eventually be absorbed by the Linji school later in the Song.
Appears in: BOS21, BCR34, BOS26, BCR22/BOS24, BCR88, BOS40, GG15, GG16, GG21, GG39, BCR6, BCR14, BCR15, BCR27, BCR39, BCR44, BCR50/BOS99, BCR54, BCR60, BCR62/BOS92, BCR77/BOS78, BCR83/BOS31, BCR86, BCR87, BOS11, BOS19, BOS82, BCR8

LUOHAN "Dizang" Guichen (Rakan "Jizo" Keichin, 867-928, 14th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Xuansha (835-908) → Luohan
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: Fayan Wenyi (885-958), Qingxi "Jinshan" Hongjin (893-954), Longji "Xiushan" Shaoxiu (893-954)
Luohan came from ancient Changshan (located in what is now Zhejiang). Classical records say that from early childhood he could speak very well and would not eat meat. He was ordained at Wansui Temple, located in his home province, under a teacher named Wuxiang. At first he closely followed the teachings of the Vinaya, but later declared that just guarding against breaking the vows and adhering to the precepts did not equal true renunciation. He then set off to explore the teachings of the Zen school. He first studied with Xuefeng Yicun, but was unsuccessful at penetrating the Way. Xuefeng’s disciple, Xuansha, brought Luohan to full awakening. Dogen praises Luohan for his saying, "The tenzo enters the kitchen." Luohan was also named after his temple, Dizang-yuan, named after the archtypal Bodhisattva. (aka Ksitigarbha, and, in Japan, Jizo; "Earth Storehouse.")
Appears in: BOS12, BOS20.

BAOFU Congzhan (Hofuku Jûten, 868?-928, 13th gen).
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Baofu
Dharma Siblings: Cuiyan (n.d.), Jingqing (868-937), Taiyuan (n.d.), Xuansha (835-908), Changqing (854-932), Yunmen (864-949)
Heirs: none noted
Baofu came from the Futang district in ancient Fuzhou (Fujian). At the age of fifteen he became a student of Xuefeng. Ordained at the age of eighteen at Dazhong Temple in his native city, he traveled to other areas in China before returning to become Xuefeng’s attendant. In 918, Magistrate Wang of Zhangzhou honored the master’s great reputation by building and supporting the Baofu Zen Monastery and inviting the master to become the abbot and teach there. The master lived at Baofu Temple only one year, and during that time not less than seven hundred students gathered there.
Appears in: BCR76, BCR91/BOS25, BCR23, BCR95, BCR8/BOS71

ZIFU Rubao (Shifuku Nyoho, 870?-940?, 13th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Guishan Lingyou (771-853) → Yangshan Huiji (807-883) → Xita Guangmu (n.d.) → Zifu
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
Zifu taught at Zifu Temple in Jizhou. Little is recorded about Zifu’s background.
Appears in: BCR33

DALONG Zhihong (Dairyo Chiko, 870?-940?, 14th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (765?-??) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Gantan Ziguo (810?-880?) → Baizhao Zhiyuan (840?-910?) → Dalong
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
Little known. "Once a monk asked him, 'What is the Buddha?' Dalong said, 'That is you.' Another asked, 'What is subtlety?' Dalong said, 'The wind brings the murmuring of the stream to my pillow; /The moon casts the shadow of the hill at my bedside.' He seems to have been a man of poetic inclination" (Sekida).
Appears in: BCR82

BAJIAO Huiqing (Basho Esei, 880?-950?, 13th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Guishan Lingyou (771-853) → Yangshan Huiji (807-83) → Nanta Guangyong (850-938) → Bajiao
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: Xingyang Qingrang (910?-980?)
"He came from Korea. At the age of twenty-eight, he arrived at Mt. Yang in Yuanzhou (now Yichun City in Jiangxi Province) and began studying with Nanta. One day Nanta said to the assembled monks, “All of you, if you are brave, come out from the womb and roar like a lion!” At these words, Bajiao gained enlightenment" (Ferguson).
Appears in GG44

HESHAN Wuyin (Kasan Muin, b. 884-960, 13th gen) -- "Rice Mountain Without Richness"
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Yaoshan Weiyan (751-834) → Daowu Yuanzhi (769-835) → Shishuang Qingzhu (807-88) → Jiufeng Daoqian (850?-923) → Heshan
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
Appears in: BCR44

FAYAN Wenyi (Hogen Buneki, 885-958, 15th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Xuansha (835-908) → Luohan (867-928) → Fayan
Dharma Siblings: Qingxi "Jinshan" Hongjin (893-954), Longji "Xiushan" Shaoxiu (893-954)
Heirs: Baoen Xuanze (n.d.), Guizong "Huichao" Cezhen (d. 979), Baoci Xingyan (n.d.), Chongshou Qichou (d. 992), Tiantai Deshao (891-972).
Fayan came from ancient Yuhang (near the city of Hangzhou). At the age of seven, he entered a monastery headed by a Zen master named Quanwei. Well educated and erudite as a young man, Fayan studied the Confucian classics. He was ordained at age 20 at Kaiyuan Temple in Yuezhou (now the city of Shaoxing in Zhejiang). He then proceeded to Maoshan, a seaport in Ye County of Zhejiang, where he studied under the Vinaya master Xijiao. Later, Fayan studied Zen under Changqing Huileng. Fayan is the founder of the "House of Fayan" -- one of the famed "Five Houses of Zen."
Appears in: BOS20, GG26/BOS27, BCR7, BOS17, BOS51, BOS64, BOS74.

MINGZHAO Deqian (Myôshô Tokken, b. 890?-960?, 14th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (765?-??) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Yantou (828-87) → Luoshan (n.d.) → Mingzhao
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
"He taught in ancient Wuzhou (now the city of Jinhua in Zhejiang Province) [for forty years]. In the Wudeng Huiyuan it is recorded that Mingzhao’s quick and incisive Zen style led his contemporaries to fear his formidable skills in Dharma combat." (Ferguson) "Afterwards, when he was enlightened, Mingzhao did not stay in one spot, but went round the country converting all kinds of people." (Osho)
Appears in: BOS87, BCR48

LONGJI "Xiushan" Shaoxiu (Ryusai "Shuzan" Shoshu, 893-954, 15th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng (822-908) → Xuansha (835-908) → Luohan (867-928) → Longji
Dharma Siblings: Fayan Wenyi (885-958), Qingxi "Jinshan" Hongjin (893-954)
Heirs: none noted
According to the Transmission of the Lamp, Longji's spiritual attainment was comparable with that of Fayan, and these two friends set off together from Dizang’s temple on a pilgrimage.
Appears in: BOS12, BOS17, BOS30, BOS70.

QINGXI "Jinshan" Hongjin (Seikei "Shinsan" Koshin, 893-954, 15th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Xuansha (835-908) → Luohan (867-928) → Qingxi
Dharma Siblings: Fayan Wenyi (885-958), Longji "Xiushan" Shaoxiu (893-954)
Heirs: Tianping Congyi
He "was the disciple of and head monk and attendant for Luohan ["Dizang"] Guichen. He first met his teacher when, with his friends Fayan and Xiushan, he sought shelter from a snowstorm at Dizang Temple. The initial story about Jinshan in the Wudeng Huiyuan does not follow the usual practice of describing the circumstances of his enlightenment. Instead, it contrasts Jinshan’s understanding with that of his friend Xiushan, and it is Xiushan who comes to a realization" (Ferguson).
Appears in BOS70

BALING Haojian (Haryô Kôkan, 895?-965?, 14th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Yunmen Wenyan (864-949) → Baling
Dharma Siblings: Xianglin Chengyuan (908-87), Fengxian Daoshen (n.d.), Deshan "Yuanming" Yuanmi (908-87), Dongshan Shouchu (910-90)
Heirs: none noted
"The record of Baling’s life is sketchy. He taught at Xinkai Temple in ancient Baling City in Yuezhou (now the city of Yueyang in Hunan Province)" (Ferguson). "His nickname 'Mouthy' was because of his eloquence" (Cleary & Cleary).
Appears in: BCR13, BCR100

FENGXUE Yanzhao (Fuketsu Enshô, 896-973, 14th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850) → Linji Yixuan (812?-867) → Xinghua Cunjiang (830-88) → Nanyuan Huiyong (860-930) → Fengxue
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: Shoushan Xingnian (926-93)
"Fengxue came from ancient Yuzhou. He studied Confucianism as a youth and failed on his first attempt to pass the state civil exams. In disappointment, he left home and entered the Kaiyuan Monastery, where he received ordination under the Vinaya master Zhigong. He delved into the Lotus Sutra and practiced the zhiguan style of self-cultivation used in the Tiantai school. Fengxue traveled to broaden his understanding and studies. At the age of twenty-five, he studied with Zen master Jingqing Daofu. Still unsuccessful at uncovering the root of Zen, he continued his travels, and eventually studied under the rigorous Zen master Nanyuan Huiyong. He remained with Nanyuan for six years, finally awakening to the Way and becoming his teacher’s Dharma heir. In 931, Fengxue traveled to Ruzhou, where he began teaching at the already old and dilapidated Fengxue Temple. There he derived his mountain name. News of Fengxue’s ability spread, and before long Zen students gathered around him. The temple’s poor physical condition was beyond repair, however, and in the year 951 Fengxue and his students moved to the newly built Guanghui Temple. Fengxue remained there as abbot for twenty-two years.
Appears in: GG24, BCR38/BOS29, BCR61/BOS34

TIANPING Congyi (Tempyô Jûi, 900?-970?, 16th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Xuansha (835-908) → Luohan (867-928) → Qingxi "Jinshan" Hongjin (893-954) → Tianping
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
"He lived and taught in Xiangzhou (a region near modern Anyang City in Hebei Province)" (Ferguson). "Taught at Mt. Tianping, Xiang Region (Henan)" (Tanahashi).
Appears in: BCR98

XIANGLIN Chengyuan (Kyôrin Chôon, 908-87, 14th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Yunmen Wenyan (864-949) → Xianglin
Dharma Siblings: Fengxian Daoshen (909?-979), Baling Haojian (895?-965?), Deshan "Yuanming" Yuanmi (908-87), Dongshan Shouchu (910-90)
Heirs: none noted
"He came from the city of Mianzhu in Hanzhou (a location in Sichuan Province). As a youth, he entered Zhenxiang Monastery in Chengdu City. There, at the age of sixteen, he took his vows...After serving Yunmen for several years he returned to Chengdu to assume the abbacy of the Tianwang Monastery. In the year 964, he moved to the Xianglin Monastery on Mt. Chingcheng. There, he preached the Dharma in the style of the Yunmen school for more than twenty years" (Ferguson).
Appears in: BCR17

DESHAN "Yuanming" Yuanmi (Tokusan Emmitsu, 908-87, 14th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Yunmen Wenyan (864-949) → Deshan Y
Dharma Siblings: Fengxian Daoshen (909?-979), Baling Haojian (895?-965?), Xianglin Chengyuan (908-87), Dongshan Shouchu (910-90)
Heirs: Wenshu Yingzhen (n.d.)
"Almost nothing is recorded of this teacher’s personal life in the ancient texts. He taught at Mt. De, located south of the modern city of Changde in Hunan Province. In BOS46, Wansong provides a brief introduction to this teacher, saying that of all of Yunmen’s students, it was Deshan who developed the largest group of followers" (Ferguson)
Appears in: BOS46

DONGSHAN Shouchu (Tozan Shusho, 910-90, 14th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Yunmen (864-949) → Dongshan S
Dharma Siblings: Xianglin Chengyuan (908-87), Fengxian Daoshen (n.d.), Deshan Yuanmi (n.d.), Baling Haojian (895?-965?)
Heirs: none noted
He taught at Mt. Dong in ancient Xiangzhou in Hebei. (A different Dongshan -- Dongshan Liangjie -- taught in Jiangxi at a different Mt. Dong.)
Appears in: GG15, GG18/BCR12

XINGYANG Qingrang (Kôyô Seijô, 910?-980?, 14th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Guishan Lingyou (771-853) → Yangshan Huiji (807-83) → Nanta Guangyong (850-938) → Bajiao Huiqing → Xingyang
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
The Guiyang House, begun in 10th-11th generation by Guishan and Yangshan, petered out after the 14th gen. "He lived and taught on Mt. Xingyang in ancient Ezhou (the modern Mt. Jing in Hubei Province). Although little is recorded about this teacher, he is notable as one of the last masters of the Guiyang school of Zen. Subsequently, the Guiyang school passed out of existence, although it was partially absorbed by the Linji tradition" (Ferguson).
Appears in: GG9

SHOUSHAN Xingnian (Shuzan Shônen, 926-993, 15th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850) → Linji Yixuan (812?-867) → Xinghua Cunjiang (830-88) → Nanyuan Huiyong (860-930) → Fengxue Yanzhao (896-973) → Shoushan
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: Fenyang Shanzhao (947-1024), Shexian Guixing (n.d.)
"He came from ancient Laizhou (now in Ye County in Shandong Province). Shoushan is remembered for having concealed and carried on the Linji lineage during the turbulent end of the Tang dynasty. As a young man, he left home to live at Nanchan Temple, where he took the monk’s vows. Later, as he roamed China, Shoushan daily chanted the Lotus Sutra and thus gained the nickname 'Nianfahua ["Chanting Lotus Sutra"].'...During the chaotic fall of the Tang dynasty, Shoushan “covered his tracks and concealed his light,” coming forth again with the teaching only when conditions were appropriate. Then Shoushan began teaching in Ruzhou on the mountain from which he gained his name. He later served as abbot at the Guangjiao Monastery on Bao’an Mountain (located in modern Hebei Province)" (Ferguson).
Appears in GG43, BOS65, BOS76

LIANHUA Fengxiang (Renge Hôshô, 936?-1006?, 15th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Yunmen Wenyan (864-949) → Fengxian Daoshen (n.d.) → Lianhua
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
A.k.a. "The Hermit of Lotus Flower Peak." "He lived on Lotus Flower Peak in the vicinity of Mt. Tiantai in Zhejiang Province" (Ferguson). He "was called by the name Sho. Rengeho (ren, lotus; ge, flower; ho, peak) is said to have been located at Taisan [Tiantai], in Shansi [Zhejiang] Province, where he built his cottage. He did not become the master of a fine large temple, but he had some disciples" (Sekida). "After enlightenment, before accepting a request to dwell in a monastery as the guide of a community, Chan adepts usually spent years travelling and/or living in seclusion or semi-seclusion, 'maturing the holy embryo.' Some, like Lianhua, remained in humble circumstances as hermits all their lives, though small groups of seekers would come to live near them and call on them for instruction. The saying in BCR25 was spoken by the hermit just before he died" (Cleary & Cleary)
Appears in: BCR25

DAYANG Jingxuan (Taiyo Kyogen, 943-1027, 16th gen).
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Yaoshan (751-834) → Yunyan (780-841) → Dongshan (807-69) → Yunju (d. 902) → Tongan Daopi (n.d.) → Tongan Guanzhi (n.d.) → Liangshan (n.d.) → Dayang
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: Xingyang (n.d.), Touzi Y (1032-83)
Came from ancient Jiangxia (now the city of Wuchang in Hubei Province); left lay life to enter Chongxiao Temple in Jinling where he studied under Zhitong; at age 19, after ordination, left Jinling and traveled widely throughout the country; studied under Yuanjiao; unsuccessful with Yuanjiao, continued travels and eventually met and studied under Liangshan; remained many years with Liangshan, realizing enlightenment; upon Liangshan's death, traveled to Mt. Dayang in Yingzhou (now the city of Jingshan in Hubei Province) where he met and studied with Huijian; upon Huijian's death, assumed the abbacy of the temple.
Dayang transmitted his dharma to Xingyan, the only student he had that he found worthy, but Xingyuan died before his teacher. With the Caodong school in serious decline and without a worthy heir, Dayang feared that the Caodong line would end with his death. Thus, Dayang took the unprecedented step of enlisting the assistance of Fushan Fayuan (Fuzan Hoen, 991-1067, 17th gen), an eminent teacher of the Linji lineage. In 1023, at age 80, Dayang entrusted to Fushan the Dharma transmission of the Caodong school. Dayang died four years later, and some years after that, Fushan encountered Touzi Yiqing, an exceptional young monk and worthy "Dharma vessel." Fushan transmitted to Touzi the heritage with which Dayang had entrusted him.
Appears in: BOS89

XUEDOU Chongxian (Setcho Juken, 980-1052, 16th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Tianhuang Daowu (748-807) → Longtan Chongxin (b. 765?) → Deshan Xuanjian (782-865) → Xuefeng Yicun (822-908) → Yunmen (864-949) → Xianglin (908-87) → Zhimen (n.d) → Xuedou
Dharma Siblings: Jiufeng Qin (n.d.)
Heirs: Tianyi (993-1064), Chengtian (n.d.)
"Xuedou came from Suining (near the modern city of Tongnan in Sichuan Province). Born into a prominent and wealthy family, the young man possessed extraordinary skills as a scholar. Determined to leave secular life and enter the Buddhist priesthood, he entered the Pu’an Monastery in Yizhou (near modern Chengdu City), where he studied the Buddhist scriptures under a teacher named Renxian. Xuedou was recognized as an adept in both Buddhist and non-Buddhist disciplines. After receiving ordination he traveled to ancient Fuzhou (near the modern city of Tianmen in Hubei Province), where he studied under Zhimen Guangzuo. After five years Xuedou received Zhimen’s seal as an heir of the Yunmen lineage. Xuedou later lived at the Lingyin Temple in Hangzhou and Cuifeng Temple in Suzhou before finally taking up residence on Mt. Xuedou (near modern Ningbo City in Zhejiang Province). Xuedou compiled the hundred kōans that are the core of the Blue Cliff Record, the well-known Zen text later annotated by Zen master Yuanwu Keqin. Xuedou’s grand style of teaching rejuvenated the Yunmen lineage. The prominent Zen master Tianyi Yihuai was among his eighty-four disciples." (Andy Ferguson)
Appears in: BOS26

WUZU "Qingyuan" Fayan (Goso Hôen 1024-1104, 20th gen).
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850) → Linji Yixuan (812?-867) → Xinghua Cunjiang (830-88) → Nanyuan Huiyong (860-930) → Fengxue Yanzhao (896-973) → Shoushan Xingnian (926-993) → Fenyang Shanzhao (947-1024) → Shishuang Chuyuan (987-1040) → Yangqi Fanghui (993-1046) → Baiyun Shouduan (1025-72) → Wuzu
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Descendants: Yuanwu "Foguo" Keqin (1063-1135), Taiping "Fojian" Huiqin (1059-1117), Foyan Qingyuan (1067-1120), Kaifu Daoning (d. 1113)
"He came from Baxi City in Mianzhou (now the city of Mianyang in Sichuan Province). A great transmitter of the Yangqi line of Linji Zen, Wuzu’s teaching exerted profound influence on subsequent generations of Zen teachers and on wider Song dynasty society. Leaving home to become a monk at the relatively late age of thirty-five, he traveled to Chengdu to study the doctrines of the Consciousness-Only school of Buddhism. However, Wuzu was troubled by the proposition that when a bodhisattva enters the Way, wisdom and principle are eclipsed, and though environment and mind are reportedly realized as fully united, no evidence can be offered to affirm the truth of this unity. With this doubt in mind, Wuzu made inquiries to a Tripitaka master about the nature of knowledge. Wuzu then left to seek out a teacher [of the buddha mind doctrine]. Wuzu’s arduous journey led him to seek out Zen masters Yuanzhao and Fushan Fayuan, but neither of these teachers brought Wuzu to a full awakening. Finally, he traveled to Baiyun Shouduan’s temple where he attained enlightenment. Wuzu’s fame as a teacher spread widely and students gathered from throughout China to study under him. He first taught at Simian Shan (“Four Face Mountain”), and then moved to Mt. Baiyun. Later he moved to the Dongchan (“East Zen”) Temple on Wuzu Mountain" located near the site of the modern city of Huangmei in Hubei Province (Ferguson).
Appears in: GG35, GG36, GG38, GG45

TOUZI Yiqing (Tosu Gisei, 1032-83, 17th gen)
Lineage: Shitou Xiqian (700-90) → Yaoshan (751-834) → Yunyan (780-841) → Dongshan (807-69) → Yunju (d. 902) → Tongan Daopi (n.d.) → Tongan Guanzhi (n.d.) → Liangshan (n.d.) → Dayang (943-1027) → Touzi.
Dharma Siblings: Xingyang (n.d.)
Heirs: Furong (1043-1118)
In 1023, Dayang, age 80, entrusted to Fushan Fayuan (Fuzan Hoen, 991-1067, 17th gen), an eminent teacher of the Linji lineage, the Dharma transmission of the Caodong school. Dayang died four years later, and some years after that, Fushan encountered Touzi Yiqing, an exceptional young monk and worthy "Dharma vessel." Fushan transmitted the Caodong heritage to Touzi. Thus, Touzi "was the Caodong Zen school Dharma heir, but not the direct student, of Dayang Jingxuan. He came from ancient Qingshe (near the modern city of Yanshi in Henan Province). According to the Wudeng Huiyuan, he left lay life at the age of seven to live at Miaoxiang Temple. Initially, he studied the “hundred dharmas doctrine” of the Consciousness-Only school of Buddhism. One day he said, “(This doctrine) is obscure and extensive. Of what advantage is all of this difficulty?” Later he undertook the practices of the Huayan school, but upon reading the words “Mind is self-nature,” he had an insight, saying, “Dharma is not found in the written word, and how can one speak of it?” He then went traveling to find and study under a Zen teacher." (Ferguson)
Touzi compiled and annotated the Empty Valley Collection.

DOUSHUAI Congyue (Tosotsu Jûetsu, 1044-1091, 20th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850) → Linji Yixuan (812?-867) → Xinghua Cunjiang (830-88) → Nanyuan Huiyong (860-930) → Fengxue Yanzhao (896-973) → Shoushan (926-93) → Fenyang (947-1024) → Shishuang Chuyuan (987-1040) → Huanglong Huinan (1002-69) → Yunan "Zhenjing" Kewen, (1025-1102) → Doushuai
Dharma Siblings: Juefan “Dehong” Huihong (1071-1128)
Heirs: none noted
"He came from ancient Ganzhou (a place in modern Jiangxi Province). He resided and taught at Doushuai Monastery in Longxing Prefecture (now a district in Nanchang City)" (Ferguson).
Appears in: GG47

SIXIN Wuxin (Shishin Goshin, 1044-1115, 20th gen)
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850) → Linji Yixuan (812-867) → Xinghua Cunjiang (830-88) → Nanyuan Huiyong (860-930) → Fengxue Yanzhao (896-973) → Shoushan (926-93) → Fenyang (947-1024) → Shishuang C (987-1040) → Huanglong (1002-60) → Huitang (1025-1100) → Sixin
Dharma Siblings: none noted
Heirs: none noted
He came from Shaozhou. According to a legend related in the Wudeng Huiyuan, Sixin was born with purple skin on his shoulders and right side, giving him the appearance of wearing a monk’s robe. As a young man, he entered Fotuo (“Buddha”) Monastery where he gained ordination.
Appears in: GG39

DAHUI Zonggao (Daie Sôkô, 1089-1163, 22nd gen).
Lineage: Mazu Daoyi (709-88) → Baizhang Huaihai (720-814) → Huangbo Xiyun (766?-850) → Linji Yixuan (812?-867) → Xinghua Cunjiang (830-88) → Nanyuan Huiyong (860-930) → Fengxue Yanzhao (896-973) → Shoushan Xingnian (926-993) → Fenyang Shanzhao (947-1024) → Shishuang Chuyuan (987-1040) → Yangqi Fanghui (993-1046) → Baiyun Shouduan (1025-72) → Wuzu "Qingyuan" Fayan (1024-1104) → Yuanwu (1063-1135) → Dahui
Dharma Siblings: Huguo Jingyuan (1094-1146)
Descendants (skipping a generation or two): Myôan Eisai (1141-1215)
A native of Xuanzho, Anhui; ordained as monk at age 16; pilgrimage took him to important Caodong masters of his time and to Zhantang Wenhun (1061-1115) of the Huanglong line from Linji. After Zhantang's death, he studied with Yuanwu, eventually succeeding him. In 1127 the Northern Song dyasty fell to Jurchen invaders, prompting Dahui to head south where he resided with his teacher Yuanwu at Mount Yunju. In 1130, Yuanwu returned to Sichuan, and Dahui remained for a time, then moved to Yunmen, Jiangxi, then to Yangyu an, Fujian. During this time he become known for sharp criticism of "silent illumination Zen" and for supporting "koan-introspecting Zen." In 1137, Dahui moved to Mount Jing, Zhejiang. In 1141, defrocked for his support of armed resistance against the Jurchen, Dahui went to Hangyag, Hunan, and around 1151, to Meiyang, Guangdong. Pardoned in 1155, he remained at Meiyang until imperial command returned him to Mount Jing, Zhejiang in 1158. There he taught an assembly of nearly 1,700 monks until his death.
Appears in: GG5 (related material)

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